Stepney had tidal mills along the Thames by 1086. In the Middle Ages it provided a land market for Londoners and courtiers. By Tudor times Poplar, Ratcliff and Shadwell were the most populous parts, where shipbuilding, victualling and recruitment had produced a rootless workforce. Subdivision of the large parish had started and ultimately was to leave only Ratcliff and, inland, Mile End Old Town and Mile End New Town. The growth of all the hamlets is traced to c. 1700, besides economic development to c. 1550 and their local government, religious life and charities. Bethnal Green, in the north-west, a parish from 1743 and metropolitan borough from 1900, is described to the present day. It contained Stepney's manor house, offered country retreats by the 16th century, and was settled from the south-west in the 17th when silkweaving preceded the Huguenots. Harsher economic conditions, jerry-building and the spread of factories aggravated poverty and stimulated the concern of outsiders, including Dickens, who advised on the model Columbia market. From the 1890s council housing transformed the scene. This book is intended for local historians, professional and amateur, social, economic, architectural, ecclesiastical, landscape and family historians.
Globally, rates of sexual violence remain unacceptably high, with disproportionate effects on women and girls. While most scholars and practitioners uniformly concur about the scope of the problem, there is currently little agreement about how to prevent sexual violence before it occurs.
From the 1820s the Essex seaside towns of Walton, and later Clacton and Frinton, were promoted as high-class residential and holiday resorts. After a slow start, hampered by poor communications and low demand, growth was stimulated by steam-ship companies which landed visitors on newly built piers in Walton and Clacton and by the railways that reached Walton in 1867, Clacton in 1882 and Frinton in 1888. The contemporary emphasis upon the health advantages of the seaside also led to the establishment of many convalescent homes. However, working-class excursionists newly attracted to Clacton, and to a lesser extent Walton, then irrevocably changed the social tone of the resorts. By the 1920s and 1930s Clacton was a commercialized holiday destination and the funfair-style facilities of its pier rivalled those of any other resort. Nearby Jaywick was established as a cheap and cheerful chalet development. While Walton remained popular with families, Frinton continued as a "select" resort, with building development and commerce strictly controlled. The town remains famous for its wide unspoilt greensward facing the sea and its resistance to any threats to its exclusive character.B R> Camping, caravanning and holiday camps replaced the traditional seaside holiday after 1945, but from the later 1960s the increase in overseas holidays led to a steep decline of the seaside resorts. The economy has, however, since diversified with large dormitory-style housing developments, light industry and new shopping centres, and the coast becoming increasingly popular for retirement homes. This volume presents an authoritative account of the growth and development of these towns on the so-called "Sunshine Coast".
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